Religion at Jamestown

History BA Hons (V100) | Lancaster University

Date of publication: 2017-08-29 14:03

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What were the arguments for and against imperialism? | eNotes

At the center of these forces stands the Mosque of Córdoba, which has become a focal point in the increasingly fierce debates over how Spain’s Islamic past should inform its present and its future.

Why the Arabic World Turned Away from Science - The New

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The Reconquista of the Mosque of Córdoba | Foreign Policy

In fact, the new brochure aims to convince the visitor that the building was Christian before it was Muslim, and that the five centuries of Muslim rule were just a parenthesis in Córdoba’s long-standing history as a Christian city. Archaeology plays an important role in this narrative. The church has funded excavations in an attempt to document the existence of a Visigothic church, the Basilica of Saint Vincent, underneath the oldest part of the mosque. “It is a historical fact,” the brochure declares, “that the Basilica of Saint Vincent was expropriated and destroyed in order to build on top of it the subsequent Mosque in the Islamic period.”

As far as reasons against imperialism in Africa, David Livingstone, the famous English explorer who inadvertently inspired European nations to colonize Africa, was vehemently against the idea of colonization. He valued African culture and its landmarks, and when approached by American journalist Henry Stanley to help set up imperial colonies, Livingstone refused to help. Stanley later went to King Leopold II of Belgium, who agreed with Stanley, and Leopold set up the most brutal colony of all in modern-day Democratic Republic of Congo.

You&rsquo ll focus on the Western Front and compare and contrast not only the nature of constantly evolving warfare on the battlefields but also include the so-called 'revisionist' arguments about the wider conflict, examining the unwelcome and unwanted national mobilisation forced upon Britain, France, and Germany and the many different consequences for these three war-fighting societies.

The Mosque of Córdoba was the symbol of Umayyad power and also the center of the city’s intellectual life. Large enough to hold 95,555 people, the mosque served as both the city’s main prayer space and also the university, where the intellectual elite of the western Islamic world went to study. The building commanded such respect that when Córdoba succumbed to the forces of Ferdinand III in 6786, its new Christian rulers transformed the mosque into a cathedral, while preserving its prayer niche (facing toward Mecca) and its celebrated red-and-white horseshoe arches.

There were three major arguments in the United States for imperialism.  First, it was seen as a way for the United States to strengthen its economy.  Second, it was a way to increase the country’s military power.  Finally, it was a way of fulfilling the country’s duty to help civilize the rest of the world. 

With its invention of democracy, the grandeur of the Parthenon, and the drama of Aristophanes, the Classical period in ancient Greece is often said to be the &lsquo Golden Age of Athens&rsquo . This module investigates religious, social and cultural life in ancient Greece in the Classical age, paying particular attention to how the Greeks negotiated relations with their gods, and how Greek religion interacted with politics, culture and other categories in the historical process. Major themes include Athenian democracy, gender identity, archaeology of sacred space, monumentalisation of the Greek past, deification of kings, dedicatory practices, divination and other means of communication with the divine.

For Mekhelef, the issue is not whether Muslims are allowed to pray in the mosque-cathedral. What bothers him more is that some non-Muslim Spaniards do not want to see the history of Islamic Córdoba as part of their own history. “There is an attempt to falsify history,” he said, and to make Spaniards believe that the medieval Islamic civilization built there “is something alien to them. And that’s not how it is, because it’s something that came from here. It is Córdoban.” The famous philosophers and physicians of the period “weren’t from Arabia or from Algeria or Morocco. They were Córdobans.”

In its heyday, the Mosque of Córdoba was the embodiment of the cultural achievements of al-Andalus , the Arabic name for medieval Muslim Iberia. Today, the hybrid structure a cathedral within a mosque has come to encapsulate a different ideal: The building evokes a supposedly harmonious past, when Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived together in peace, an idea that the Spanish refer to as convivencia , or “coexistence.”

Lancaster University offers a range of programmes, some of which follow a structured study programme, and others which offer the chance for you to devise a more flexible programme. We divide academic study into two sections - Part 6 (Year 6) and Part 7 (Year 7, 8 and sometimes 9). For most programmes Part 6 requires you to study 675 credits spread over at least three modules which, depending upon your programme, will be drawn from one, two or three different academic subjects. A higher degree of specialisation then develops in subsequent years. For more information about our teaching methods at Lancaster visit our Teaching and Learning section.

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