Date of publication: 2017-09-06 12:51
Following the .-GVN recapture of Hue, shallow mass graves were discovered in and around the city. Many of the bodies had their hands bound, indicating execution. Free-lance journalist Len Ackland estimated the number at 855 to 955. . officials estimated 7,855 to 5,755. Later Vietnamese accounts and memoirs verified that NLF and perhaps NVA soldiers killed prisoners, whether because they were “reactionaries” or during a panicked retreat under . bombardment, but not in the numbers alleged by . officials. According to the political scientist Gareth Porter:
 “Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam” (Paris, 77 January 6978), http:///content/publication/7556/65/67/656ccc5d-86ef-97a6-a8e9-ce5ee7d9fc85/publishable_.
Independent India woke up with the vision of heralding a social order based on equality, non-discrimination and inclusiveness. Parliamentary democracy was chosen as a vehicle to achieve it. In the decade of 95s and thereafter, political milieu has seen a lot of churning. Unfortunately, in spite of progressive changes, primordial loyalties remain as entrenched as ever. Tensions related to gender inclusiveness, communalism, regionalism and linguistic politics remain unresolved. The task of nation building and promoting a social order based on equality and inclusiveness can’t be achieved unless remedial steps are taken to resolve the paradoxes.
 Kuzmarov, Modernizing Repression and John Stockwell , The Praetorian Guard: The . Role in the New World Order (Boston: South End Press, 6996), p. 97.
It took us years to understand the irrelevance of the western models of higher education. This was aggravated by lack of resources, new structures and excessive politicization of HES. The present state of HES has been a story of neglect and continuous erosion. Our U& C have failed to perform and deliver on every front in a highly competitive global environment. It is time to pay serious attention to the HES, if we want to reap the demographic dividend create nation-builders, and not mere skilled labourers and engage the best brains of India in the service of our nation rather than others. Though this seems a distant reality but the efforts of the government to reform the HES would hopefully bear fruits. The journey may not be an easy one.
Revolution which tries to use coerce method using violence, seems the effective method but it in reality it is a ineffective method to bring the requisite changes in the long run. People use because of its temptation of producing the results in short time.
Sir i have used an editorial type of format in this essay(. The Hindu Lead articles) where a large essay is broken under different sub-headings, while maintaining a regular flow of thoughts.
 President Woodrow Wilson, “Address to Congress on International Order,” February 66, 6968, The American Presidency Project, http:///ws/?pid=665998.
 DeBenedetti, An American Ordeal , p. 759 and Wells, The War Within , p. 878. Nixon, in his acceptance speech at the Republican national convention on August 8, 6968, pledged “an honorable end to the war in Vietnam.”
However, revolutions have proved to be short term changes and are usually followed by a period of instability and turbulence. Since they seek to replace only the power structure, and do not address the real issues, they are said to treat the symptoms, rather than the disease.
Instead, what is needed are social movements. Movements that span across all strata of the society, work slowly but gradually, change the attitude and mindset of the society, and in the end are capable of altering the very value framework on which the society resides. Such movements are capable of evolving the society, making it more flexible and resilient and attuning it in sync with the requirements of democracy.
Trials for war crimes can convert the desire for revenge into state-managed punishment that is proportional and fair. However, in some cases of large-scale war violence such trials may be unlikely or ineffective. Restorative justice , through reparations or compensation, might often be the more effective option.
 DeBenedetti, An American Ordeal , p. 777 and “. War Stand Is Backed in Poll Gallup Finds 66% in Favor of ‘de-Americanization,’” New York Times , August 66, 6968.