Date of publication: 2017-09-02 11:39
Polonius, Rosencrantz, Guildenstern and King Claudius all appear to be sincere and trustworthy but the reality is they are all evil. Because they give off the impression that they are trustworthy and sincere, it is extremely difficult for Hamlet to find the truth behind his father's murder.
When faced with the distinction between appearance and reality, and the worry of how one can know reality on the basis of the appearances with which one is presented, the most straightforward response may be to simply deny that people have any reliable access to reality. This sort of position is often described as " skepticism."
I am not dependent on this belief, but it makes sense to me. This belief is tied in with the concept of perception (in that our organized senses is our experiences which may be flawed) and Plato 8767 s Cave. There is also a religious connection that there is more than life we see at earth, but an afterlife of some sort.
Throughout the play Polonius appears to be a loving and honest parent but in reality he is a liar and deceitful. Polonius strengthens the theme of appearance verses reality by demonstrating how his appearance is not his true nature. His true nature is a man of lies not the loving and caring man he tries to portray.
This is the second time that Othello has referred to himself as a crude and unskilled speaker, and yet all evidence points to the falseness of this statement. Meanwhile, the fact that he is older than Desdemona is hardly significant, considering it was common for women to marry older men at the time. The only objective fact that in this speech is that Othello is black however, at no point in the play does Desdemona express even the slightest concern over this fact. On the other had, Othello's experience of racism at the hands of the other characters is frequent and severe. Thus, regardless of what Desdemona thinks, he cannot escape the internalized racist idea that their racial difference makes their marriage unviable.
The characters in the play all show the theme appearance verses reality. Polonius, Rosencrantz. Guildenstern and King Claudius all appear to be sincere and trustworthy. However, in the end, Hamlet sees through their appearances to the reality of their true nature.
Yet, Berkeley argued, it was an unwarranted break with common sense for philosophers to assume the existence of material substance, and in doing so to create the distinction between appearance and reality. The objects that populate the world aren't something to be accessed by means of ideas, rather, they are those ideas. Berkeley has a simple argument for this claim:
Ancient skepticism exerted great influence on later European philosophy. Descartes and Berkeley proposed philosophical systems aimed at combating skepticism (see below), while others such as Pierre Bayle took on the task of defending it. Skepticism of some form or another remained a central topic in twentieth century epistemology, as witnessed by the work of philosophers such as Peter Unger.
While they wait for Othello to arrive, Cassio has a brief private conversation with Desdemona, inspiring Iago to trick Othello into thinking that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio. Othello arrives, and declares that he could not be any happier and thus wouldn't mind if he died then and there. Othello's innocent joy in this scene could be said to tempt fate. Indeed, without realizing it, in this speech Othello accurately foreshadows that he will never be this happy again--and that he will soon die as well. The added tragedy underlying this statement is that Othello's wish to die happy will go unfulfilled both his marital bliss and good reputation will be ruined before he dies.
Hamlet enters into Claudius’s chambers, intending to kill him, but decides against it when he sees him praying. Yet after Hamlet exits, Claudius reveals here that his prayers were in vain, for they were mere words without the associated repentant thoughts.
It is essential to be on the lookout throughout Hamlet for these types of ironies, particularly when characters are reflecting on questions of performance and integrity. Quite often a few lines in isolation will seem earnest, but when given more context will actually present the speaker as lying or jesting. Thus by professing that there is an internal self to whom Laertes could be true, Polonius only complicates the stakes of identity—and shows even more so how the self is the result of performance and ever-changing construction.
Here Hamlet speaks to his old friends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. They have tried to express that Denmark is not as bad as Hamlet presents it to be, and in response he notes that the merit in things lies less in their actual existence and more in how they are subjectively experienced.